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INFORMATION

Hygienic insects

poultry Red mite

What is poultry red mite?

  • Poultry red mite(Dermanyssus gallinae, red mite, poultry mite) is ectoparasite of chicken and poultry. Size is usually less than 1mm. It sucks blood during the night time. 

  • Color of red mite is red or black after suckling blood. Normally it is white or grey color. Female sucks blood for laying eggs. Red mite recognize changes of hen's body temperature, CO2 concentration and vibration. 

Poultry red mite

Character of red mite

  • Red mite congregate and make cluster. It usually habitat in dust, feather and cleft of cage. Red mite is nocturnal and only suck blood at night. 

  • Red mite can survive more than 8 months without sucking blood. Red mite can survive for various temperature condition. 

  • Red mite can be transfer by chicken, equipment and human. Mouse and wild bird also transfer red mite to farms.

Cluster of mite between egg belt

Life cycle of red mite

  • Poultry red mite has short life cycle upon temperature condition.

  • Female adult can lay eggs on 5~45℃  condition.

  • Best condition is 25∼30℃ on 70%  humidity.  

  • Red mite suck blood to get energy for replication. 

Production loss with red mite

Red mite is biological mechanical vector and transfer many poultry disease.

Also red mite suck blood and give stress to chicken.

Hens get anemia and immune suppression by red mite infestation. 

01/

Economic loss

120 farms(14 million hen) were surveyed in 2016 by poultry veterinary association. 

94.2% of farms were positive for red mite. 20% out of surveyed farms were experienced with fowl typhoid.

19% had E.Coli infection.

Annual economic loss due to infestation were estimated 1.3 USD per hen. 

02/

Direct loss

- Anemia, Death, Stress

- Immune suppression 

- Disease transfer(Salmonella, fowl fox etc)

- Egg quality drop

- Egg production drop

- Harm for work

2nd grade egg

Human attack

Anemia and stress to death

Control method

01/  Chemical Control

Insecticide 

-

Poultry red mite has 4 pair of legs, and it is classified as arachnid. Acaricide is better than insecticide to control the eggs of mite. Usual insecticide also work for adult but should repeat treatment within 7~10 days for control untreated egg and nymph. 

Resistance for organophosphate and permethrin, carbaryl, fipronil are already reported for Korean isolate(Kim, 2007). 

In addition, treatment needs to be sprayed every nook and corner with customized equipment to effectively remove red mites.

Plant extract / Oil

-

Oil products with garlic, neem oil etc. are developed and it is effective on low density infestation.

These extracts and oils mostly are volatile oil which is repellent to red mites. When used in high concentration, it kills red mites.

 

Products made of thyme, burdock (Arctium spp.), or tansy extract etc., allows birds to avoid red mites from sucking their blood.

Requiring Quality Guarantee for these plant extract is difficult and the effect differs from time to time.

 

Others

-

Oils such as diesel and some detergent are somewhat effective as it suffocates red mites. However, it does not work on eggs and larva.

02/  Physical Control

Lighting Program

-

This program lights the bird house for 40 minutes and puts lights out for 20 minutes during night time. This reduces speed of multiplication of red mite.

However, this stresses birds and it is difficult to implement in real life considering animal welfare.

Inert susbstances

-

The product is uses Diatomite, Silica to physically injure red mite. It is eco-friendly and eliminates the possibility of resistant.

03/  Biological Control

Natural Enemy

-

Carnivore mites such as Androlaelaps casalis, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Hypoaspis miles etc. are used to exterminate red mites.

It can be used when there is low mite density but in high density, it is ineffective.

Insect fungus, nematode, bacteria

-

There are about 58 types of fungus,

78 types of nematode such as Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Trichoderma album, Paecilomyces.

Using principal of changing microbial population in the insect to eliminate the host is currently developing.

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